Implementation of total quality management based on soft factor

Implementation of total quality management based on soft factor, In 1980s, among practitioners, scholars and consulters of quality management, a new concept evolved under the name of Total Quality Management (TQM). The concept was strongly influenced by the experience of high-quality products from Japanese manufactures and by what had been learned about Japanese approaches to quality management (Zandin, 2001). TQM is an approach for continuously improving the quality of goods and services delivered through the participation of individuals at all levels of an organization (Pfau, 1989). TQM is more than a program; it is a way of business management for the whole organization. It is a holistic corporate philosophy including three fundamental principles of ‘Total’ as participation of every person and every department; ‘Quality’ as meeting customer needs and expectations; and ‘Management’ as enabling conditions for total quality (Whyte & Witcher, 1992). Thus, TQM is defined as a comprehensive management philosophy which provides continuous improvement to all functions of an organization, and it is achieved when the subject of total quality is utilized from the acquisition of resources to customer service (Kaynak, 2003).TQM practices have been published extensively in measurement studies as well as in the studies that the relationship of TQM practices with various dependent variables has been investigated. TQM emphasizes that customer requirements and business goals are inseparable. It affirms an integrated management approach based on a set of techniques to achieve this objective. It requires cooperation among every part and demands fundamental changes in every aspect of the organization. It also requires continuous improvement not only in products/services quality but also in all operations for creating an organizational quality culture (Yusuf et al., 2007). It is important to establish a positive TQM environment in the whole organization in order to implement TQM. If every department and individual understands the needs, process and benefits of TQM, employees will accept the TQM philosophy and as a result will do their job more effectively (Yusuf et al. 2007).During the past 20 years, many authors have focused on the TQM factors and its dimensions. Ross (1993) explained TQM as a set of practices, continuous improvement, meeting customers’ requirements, reducing rework, increased employee involvement and teamwork, process redesign, competitive benchmarking, team-based problem-solving, constant measurement of results, and closer relationships with suppliers. In this respect, several researchers have suggested different soft and hard factors for TQM. Hard factors are related to the techniques and tools such as statistical process control and problem solving methods while the soft factors refer to the “management” part of the TQM which involves people, culture and improvement.Powell (1995) suggested 12 factors for TQM programs as it is shown in appendix A. Rahman andBullock (2005) proposed a logical approach to study the soft TQM, hard TQM and organizational performance relationships. Al-Marriet al. (2007) found 16 factorsas critical in successful implementation of TQM in a service industry. They include top management support, strategy, continuous improvement, benchmarking, customer focus,quality department, quality system, human resource management, recognition and reward, problem analysis, quality service technologies, service design, employees, services capes, service culture and social responsibility. As it was mentioned earlier, the soft dimensions of TQM refer to the management perspective of TQM practices. In the Powell’s framework, flexible manufacturing and measurement are related to the hard aspects and the other factors refer to the soft aspects

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